Pediatrics

Impaired Fetal Growth and Arterial Wall Thickening: A Randomized Trial of Omega-3 Supplementation


Impaired fetal growth is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases in adulthood and is associated with arterial wall thickening, a noninvasive measure of subclinical atherosclerosis, in early childhood. No preventive strategy has been identified.
Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in early childhood prevented the association of impaired fetal growth with arterial wall thickening, suggesting that this early-life intervention may mitigate the risk of cardiovascular disease in those with impaired fetal growth.


Impact of a Guideline on Management of Children Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia


Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common pediatric illness caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. New pediatric Infectious Diseases Society of America CAP guidelines are now available recommending ampicillin as empirical treatment of children hospitalized with uncomplicated CAP.
This study found that a CAP guideline led to an increase in the narrow-spectrum antibiotic ampicillin. Additionally, an increase in the use of amoxicillin at discharge was observed. Furthermore, change in therapy did not lead to increased adverse outcomes.


Bed- and Sofa-Sharing Practices in a UK Biethnic Population


Parent-infant bed-sharing is a common behavior of breastfeeding mothers and various ethnic groups. Under certain circumstances, it is associated with an increased risk of sudden infant death. Blanket prohibitions against bed-sharing conflict with breastfeeding promotion and inhibit safe bed-sharing discussion.
Bed-sharing and sofa-sharing were almost mutually exclusive. Pakistani families avoided sofa-sharing and hazardous bed-sharing, and have a very low rate of sudden infant death syndrome. White British families were more likely to smoke, drink alcohol, and sofa-share with their infants.


Nicotine Replacement Therapy During Pregnancy and Infantile Colic in the Offspring


Infantile colic affects almost 10% of all infants and is characterized by crying and fussing in an otherwise healthy and well-fed infant. Prenatal exposure to tobacco smoking is a risk factor, but it is unclear whether nicotine causes the association.
Infants exposed to nicotine replacement therapy during pregnancy had elevated infantile colic risk of the same magnitude as infants exposed to tobacco smoking. Intrauterine exposure to nicotine may play a causal role in the pathogenesis of infantile colic.


Prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorders in Hispanic and Non-Hispanic White Children


The number of individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) continues to increase in the United States and other developed countries. Most prevalence estimates indicate that ASD is diagnosed less commonly in Hispanic individuals compared with non-Hispanic (NH) white populations.

Prevalence of ASD in Arizona's population-based cohort is higher than reported previously. Prevalence in the Hispanic population and NH white population increased significantly over time, with a significant decrease in the gap between Hispanic and NH white prevalence.
 
 
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